This is a POSIXct method for the date_seq() generic.

date_seq() generates a date-time (POSIXct) sequence.

When calling date_seq(), exactly two of the following must be specified:

  • to

  • by

  • total_size

# S3 method for POSIXt
date_seq(
  from,
  ...,
  to = NULL,
  by = NULL,
  total_size = NULL,
  invalid = NULL,
  nonexistent = NULL,
  ambiguous = NULL
)

Arguments

from

[POSIXct(1) / POSIXlt(1)]

A date-time to start the sequence from.

from is always included in the result.

...

These dots are for future extensions and must be empty.

to

[POSIXct(1) / POSIXlt(1) / NULL]

A date-time to stop the sequence at.

to is only included in the result if the resulting sequence divides the distance between from and to exactly.

If to is supplied along with by, all components of to more precise than the precision of by must match from exactly. For example, if by = duration_months(1), the day, hour, minute, and second components of to must match the corresponding components of from. This ensures that the generated sequence is, at a minimum, a weakly monotonic sequence of date-times.

The time zone of to must match the time zone of from exactly.

by

[integer(1) / clock_duration(1) / NULL]

The unit to increment the sequence by.

If to < from, then by must be positive.

If to > from, then by must be negative.

If by is an integer, it is equivalent to duration_seconds(by).

If by is a duration, it is allowed to have a precision of:

  • year

  • quarter

  • month

  • week

  • day

  • hour

  • minute

  • second

total_size

[positive integer(1) / NULL]

The size of the resulting sequence.

If specified alongside to, this must generate a non-fractional sequence between from and to.

invalid

[character(1) / NULL]

One of the following invalid date resolution strategies:

  • "previous": The previous valid instant in time.

  • "previous-day": The previous valid day in time, keeping the time of day.

  • "next": The next valid instant in time.

  • "next-day": The next valid day in time, keeping the time of day.

  • "overflow": Overflow by the number of days that the input is invalid by. Time of day is dropped.

  • "overflow-day": Overflow by the number of days that the input is invalid by. Time of day is kept.

  • "NA": Replace invalid dates with NA.

  • "error": Error on invalid dates.

Using either "previous" or "next" is generally recommended, as these two strategies maintain the relative ordering between elements of the input.

If NULL, defaults to "error".

If getOption("clock.strict") is TRUE, invalid must be supplied and cannot be NULL. This is a convenient way to make production code robust to invalid dates.

nonexistent

[character / NULL]

One of the following nonexistent time resolution strategies, allowed to be either length 1, or the same length as the input:

  • "roll-forward": The next valid instant in time.

  • "roll-backward": The previous valid instant in time.

  • "shift-forward": Shift the nonexistent time forward by the size of the daylight saving time gap.

  • "shift-backward: Shift the nonexistent time backward by the size of the daylight saving time gap.

  • "NA": Replace nonexistent times with NA.

  • "error": Error on nonexistent times.

Using either "roll-forward" or "roll-backward" is generally recommended over shifting, as these two strategies maintain the relative ordering between elements of the input.

If NULL, defaults to "error".

If getOption("clock.strict") is TRUE, nonexistent must be supplied and cannot be NULL. This is a convenient way to make production code robust to nonexistent times.

ambiguous

[character / zoned_time / POSIXct / list(2) / NULL]

One of the following ambiguous time resolution strategies, allowed to be either length 1, or the same length as the input:

  • "earliest": Of the two possible times, choose the earliest one.

  • "latest": Of the two possible times, choose the latest one.

  • "NA": Replace ambiguous times with NA.

  • "error": Error on ambiguous times.

Alternatively, ambiguous is allowed to be a zoned_time (or POSIXct) that is either length 1, or the same length as the input. If an ambiguous time is encountered, the zoned_time is consulted. If the zoned_time corresponds to a naive_time that is also ambiguous and uses the same daylight saving time transition point as the original ambiguous time, then the offset of the zoned_time is used to resolve the ambiguity. If the ambiguity cannot be resolved by consulting the zoned_time, then this method falls back to NULL.

Finally, ambiguous is allowed to be a list of size 2, where the first element of the list is a zoned_time (as described above), and the second element of the list is an ambiguous time resolution strategy to use when the ambiguous time cannot be resolved by consulting the zoned_time. Specifying a zoned_time on its own is identical to list(<zoned_time>, NULL).

If NULL, defaults to "error".

If getOption("clock.strict") is TRUE, ambiguous must be supplied and cannot be NULL. Additionally, ambiguous cannot be specified as a zoned_time on its own, as this implies NULL for ambiguous times that the zoned_time cannot resolve. Instead, it must be specified as a list alongside an ambiguous time resolution strategy as described above. This is a convenient way to make production code robust to ambiguous times.

Value

A date-time vector.

Sequence Generation

Different methods are used to generate the sequences, depending on the precision implied by by. They are intended to generate the most intuitive sequences, especially around daylight saving time gaps and fallbacks.

See the examples for more details.

Calendrical based sequences:

These convert to a naive-time, then to a year-month-day, generate the sequence, then convert back to a date-time.

  • by = duration_years()

  • by = duration_quarters()

  • by = duration_months()

Naive-time based sequences:

These convert to a naive-time, generate the sequence, then convert back to a date-time.

  • by = duration_weeks()

  • by = duration_days()

Sys-time based sequences:

These convert to a sys-time, generate the sequence, then convert back to a date-time.

  • by = duration_hours()

  • by = duration_minutes()

  • by = duration_seconds()

Examples

zone <- "America/New_York" from <- date_time_build(2019, 1, zone = zone) to <- date_time_build(2019, 1, second = 50, zone = zone) # Defaults to second precision sequence date_seq(from, to = to, by = 7)
#> [1] "2019-01-01 00:00:00 EST" "2019-01-01 00:00:07 EST" #> [3] "2019-01-01 00:00:14 EST" "2019-01-01 00:00:21 EST" #> [5] "2019-01-01 00:00:28 EST" "2019-01-01 00:00:35 EST" #> [7] "2019-01-01 00:00:42 EST" "2019-01-01 00:00:49 EST"
to <- date_time_build(2019, 1, 5, zone = zone) # Use durations to change to alternative precisions date_seq(from, to = to, by = duration_days(1))
#> [1] "2019-01-01 EST" "2019-01-02 EST" "2019-01-03 EST" "2019-01-04 EST" #> [5] "2019-01-05 EST"
date_seq(from, to = to, by = duration_hours(10))
#> [1] "2019-01-01 00:00:00 EST" "2019-01-01 10:00:00 EST" #> [3] "2019-01-01 20:00:00 EST" "2019-01-02 06:00:00 EST" #> [5] "2019-01-02 16:00:00 EST" "2019-01-03 02:00:00 EST" #> [7] "2019-01-03 12:00:00 EST" "2019-01-03 22:00:00 EST" #> [9] "2019-01-04 08:00:00 EST" "2019-01-04 18:00:00 EST"
date_seq(from, by = duration_minutes(-2), total_size = 3)
#> [1] "2019-01-01 00:00:00 EST" "2018-12-31 23:58:00 EST" #> [3] "2018-12-31 23:56:00 EST"
# Note that components of `to` more precise than the precision of `by` # must match `from` exactly. For example, this is not well defined: from <- date_time_build(2019, 1, 1, 0, 1, 30, zone = zone) to <- date_time_build(2019, 1, 1, 5, 2, 20, zone = zone) try(date_seq(from, to = to, by = duration_hours(1)))
#> Error : All components of `from` and `to` more precise than 'hour' must match.
# The minute and second components of `to` must match `from` to <- date_time_build(2019, 1, 1, 5, 1, 30, zone = zone) date_seq(from, to = to, by = duration_hours(1))
#> [1] "2019-01-01 00:01:30 EST" "2019-01-01 01:01:30 EST" #> [3] "2019-01-01 02:01:30 EST" "2019-01-01 03:01:30 EST" #> [5] "2019-01-01 04:01:30 EST" "2019-01-01 05:01:30 EST"
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Invalid dates must be resolved with the `invalid` argument from <- date_time_build(2019, 1, 31, zone = zone) to <- date_time_build(2019, 12, 31, zone = zone) try(date_seq(from, to = to, by = duration_months(1)))
#> Error : Invalid date found at location 2. #> Resolve invalid date issues by specifying the `invalid` argument.
date_seq(from, to = to, by = duration_months(1), invalid = "previous-day")
#> [1] "2019-01-31 EST" "2019-02-28 EST" "2019-03-31 EDT" "2019-04-30 EDT" #> [5] "2019-05-31 EDT" "2019-06-30 EDT" "2019-07-31 EDT" "2019-08-31 EDT" #> [9] "2019-09-30 EDT" "2019-10-31 EDT" "2019-11-30 EST" "2019-12-31 EST"
# Compare this to the base R result, which is often a source of confusion seq(from, to = to, by = "1 month")
#> [1] "2019-01-31 EST" "2019-03-03 EST" "2019-03-31 EDT" "2019-05-01 EDT" #> [5] "2019-05-31 EDT" "2019-07-01 EDT" "2019-07-31 EDT" "2019-08-31 EDT" #> [9] "2019-10-01 EDT" "2019-10-31 EDT" "2019-12-01 EST" "2019-12-31 EST"
# This is equivalent to the overflow invalid resolution strategy date_seq(from, to = to, by = duration_months(1), invalid = "overflow")
#> [1] "2019-01-31 EST" "2019-03-03 EST" "2019-03-31 EDT" "2019-05-01 EDT" #> [5] "2019-05-31 EDT" "2019-07-01 EDT" "2019-07-31 EDT" "2019-08-31 EDT" #> [9] "2019-10-01 EDT" "2019-10-31 EDT" "2019-12-01 EST" "2019-12-31 EST"
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # This date-time is 2 days before a daylight saving time gap that occurred # on 2021-03-14 between 01:59:59 -> 03:00:00 from <- as.POSIXct("2021-03-12 02:30:00", "America/New_York") # So creating a daily sequence lands us in that daylight saving time gap, # creating a nonexistent time try(date_seq(from, by = duration_days(1), total_size = 5))
#> Error : Nonexistent time due to daylight saving time at location 3. #> Resolve nonexistent time issues by specifying the `nonexistent` argument.
# Resolve the nonexistent time with `nonexistent`. Note that this importantly # allows times after the gap to retain the `02:30:00` time. date_seq(from, by = duration_days(1), total_size = 5, nonexistent = "roll-forward")
#> [1] "2021-03-12 02:30:00 EST" "2021-03-13 02:30:00 EST" #> [3] "2021-03-14 03:00:00 EDT" "2021-03-15 02:30:00 EDT" #> [5] "2021-03-16 02:30:00 EDT"
# Compare this to the base R behavior, where the hour is adjusted from 2->3 # as you cross the daylight saving time gap, and is never restored. This is # equivalent to always using sys-time (rather than naive-time, like clock # uses for daily sequences). seq(from, by = "1 day", length.out = 5)
#> [1] "2021-03-12 02:30:00 EST" "2021-03-13 02:30:00 EST" #> [3] "2021-03-14 03:30:00 EDT" "2021-03-15 03:30:00 EDT" #> [5] "2021-03-16 03:30:00 EDT"
# You can replicate this behavior by generating a second precision sequence # of 86,400 seconds. Seconds always add in sys-time. date_seq(from, by = duration_seconds(86400), total_size = 5)
#> [1] "2021-03-12 02:30:00 EST" "2021-03-13 02:30:00 EST" #> [3] "2021-03-14 03:30:00 EDT" "2021-03-15 03:30:00 EDT" #> [5] "2021-03-16 03:30:00 EDT"
# --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Usage of `to` and `total_size` must generate a non-fractional sequence # between `from` and `to` from <- date_time_build(2019, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0, zone = "America/New_York") to <- date_time_build(2019, 1, 1, 0, 0, 3, zone = "America/New_York") # These are fine date_seq(from, to = to, total_size = 2)
#> [1] "2019-01-01 00:00:00 EST" "2019-01-01 00:00:03 EST"
date_seq(from, to = to, total_size = 4)
#> [1] "2019-01-01 00:00:00 EST" "2019-01-01 00:00:01 EST" #> [3] "2019-01-01 00:00:02 EST" "2019-01-01 00:00:03 EST"
# But this is not! try(date_seq(from, to = to, total_size = 3))
#> Error : The supplied output size does not result in a non-fractional sequence between `from` and `to`.