This is a naive-time method for the as_zoned_time() generic.

Converting to a zoned-time from a naive-time retains the printed time, but changes the underlying duration, depending on the zone that you choose.

Naive-times are time points with a yet-to-be-determined time zone. By converting them to a zoned-time, all you are doing is specifying that time zone while attempting to keep all other printed information the same (if possible).

If you want to retain the underlying duration, try converting to a zoned-time from a sys-time, which is a time point interpreted as having a UTC time zone.

## Usage

# S3 method for clock_naive_time
as_zoned_time(x, zone, ..., nonexistent = NULL, ambiguous = NULL)

## Arguments

x

[clock_naive_time]

A naive-time to convert to a zoned-time.

zone

[character(1)]

The zone to convert to.

...

These dots are for future extensions and must be empty.

nonexistent

[character / NULL]

One of the following nonexistent time resolution strategies, allowed to be either length 1, or the same length as the input:

• "roll-forward": The next valid instant in time.

• "roll-backward": The previous valid instant in time.

• "shift-forward": Shift the nonexistent time forward by the size of the daylight saving time gap.

• "shift-backward: Shift the nonexistent time backward by the size of the daylight saving time gap.

• "NA": Replace nonexistent times with NA.

• "error": Error on nonexistent times.

Using either "roll-forward" or "roll-backward" is generally recommended over shifting, as these two strategies maintain the relative ordering between elements of the input.

If NULL, defaults to "error".

If getOption("clock.strict") is TRUE, nonexistent must be supplied and cannot be NULL. This is a convenient way to make production code robust to nonexistent times.

ambiguous

[character / zoned_time / POSIXct / list(2) / NULL]

One of the following ambiguous time resolution strategies, allowed to be either length 1, or the same length as the input:

• "earliest": Of the two possible times, choose the earliest one.

• "latest": Of the two possible times, choose the latest one.

• "NA": Replace ambiguous times with NA.

• "error": Error on ambiguous times.

Alternatively, ambiguous is allowed to be a zoned_time (or POSIXct) that is either length 1, or the same length as the input. If an ambiguous time is encountered, the zoned_time is consulted. If the zoned_time corresponds to a naive_time that is also ambiguous and uses the same daylight saving time transition point as the original ambiguous time, then the offset of the zoned_time is used to resolve the ambiguity. If the ambiguity cannot be resolved by consulting the zoned_time, then this method falls back to NULL.

Finally, ambiguous is allowed to be a list of size 2, where the first element of the list is a zoned_time (as described above), and the second element of the list is an ambiguous time resolution strategy to use when the ambiguous time cannot be resolved by consulting the zoned_time. Specifying a zoned_time on its own is identical to list(<zoned_time>, NULL).

If NULL, defaults to "error".

If getOption("clock.strict") is TRUE, ambiguous must be supplied and cannot be NULL. Additionally, ambiguous cannot be specified as a zoned_time on its own, as this implies NULL for ambiguous times that the zoned_time cannot resolve. Instead, it must be specified as a list alongside an ambiguous time resolution strategy as described above. This is a convenient way to make production code robust to ambiguous times.

## Value

A zoned-time vector.

## Daylight Saving Time

Converting from a naive-time to a zoned-time is not always possible due to daylight saving time issues. There are two types of these issues:

Nonexistent times are the result of daylight saving time "gaps". For example, in the America/New_York time zone, there was a daylight saving time gap 1 second after "2020-03-08 01:59:59", where the clocks changed from 01:59:59 -> 03:00:00, completely skipping the 2 o'clock hour. This means that if you had a naive time of "2020-03-08 02:30:00", you couldn't convert that straight into a zoned-time with this time zone. To resolve these issues, the nonexistent argument can be used to specify one of many nonexistent time resolution strategies.

Ambiguous times are the result of daylight saving time "fallbacks". For example, in the America/New_York time zone, there was a daylight saving time fallback 1 second after "2020-11-01 01:59:59 EDT", at which point the clocks "fell backwards" by 1 hour, resulting in a printed time of "2020-11-01 01:00:00 EST" (note the EDT->EST shift). This resulted in two 1 o'clock hours for this day, so if you had a naive time of "2020-11-01 01:30:00", you wouldn't be able to convert that directly into a zoned-time with this time zone, as there is no way for clock to know which of the two ambiguous times you wanted. To resolve these issues, the ambiguous argument can be used to specify one of many ambiguous time resolution strategies.

## Examples

library(magrittr)

x <- as_naive_time(year_month_day(2019, 1, 1))

# Converting a naive-time to a zoned-time generally retains the
# printed time, while changing the underlying duration.
as_zoned_time(x, "America/New_York")
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[1]>
#> [1] "2019-01-01T00:00:00-05:00"
as_zoned_time(x, "America/Los_Angeles")
#> <zoned_time<second><America/Los_Angeles>[1]>
#> [1] "2019-01-01T00:00:00-08:00"

# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Nonexistent time:

new_york <- "America/New_York"

# There was a daylight saving gap in the America/New_York time zone on
# 2020-03-08 01:59:59 -> 03:00:00, which means that one of these
# naive-times don't exist in that time zone. By default, attempting to
# convert it to a zoned time will result in an error.
nonexistent_time <- year_month_day(2020, 03, 08, c(02, 03), c(45, 30), 00)
nonexistent_time <- as_naive_time(nonexistent_time)
try(as_zoned_time(nonexistent_time, new_york))
#> Error in stop_clock(message, "clock_error_nonexistent_time") :
#>   Nonexistent time due to daylight saving time at location 1.
#> ℹ Resolve nonexistent time issues by specifying the nonexistent argument.

# Resolve this by specifying a nonexistent time resolution strategy
as_zoned_time(nonexistent_time, new_york, nonexistent = "roll-forward")
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[2]>
#> [1] "2020-03-08T03:00:00-04:00" "2020-03-08T03:30:00-04:00"
as_zoned_time(nonexistent_time, new_york, nonexistent = "roll-backward")
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[2]>
#> [1] "2020-03-08T01:59:59-05:00" "2020-03-08T03:30:00-04:00"

# Note that rolling backwards will choose the last possible moment in
# time at the current precision of the input
nonexistent_nanotime <- time_point_cast(nonexistent_time, "nanosecond")
nonexistent_nanotime
#> <time_point<naive><nanosecond>[2]>
#> [1] "2020-03-08T02:45:00.000000000" "2020-03-08T03:30:00.000000000"
as_zoned_time(nonexistent_nanotime, new_york, nonexistent = "roll-backward")
#> <zoned_time<nanosecond><America/New_York>[2]>
#> [1] "2020-03-08T01:59:59.999999999-05:00"
#> [2] "2020-03-08T03:30:00.000000000-04:00"

# A word of caution - Shifting does not guarantee that the relative ordering
# of the input is maintained
shifted <- as_zoned_time(
nonexistent_time,
new_york,
nonexistent = "shift-forward"
)
shifted
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[2]>
#> [1] "2020-03-08T03:45:00-04:00" "2020-03-08T03:30:00-04:00"

# 02:45:00 < 03:30:00
nonexistent_time[1] < nonexistent_time[2]
#> [1] TRUE
# 03:45:00 > 03:30:00 (relative ordering is lost)
shifted[1] < shifted[2]
#> [1] FALSE

# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Ambiguous time:

new_york <- "America/New_York"

# There was a daylight saving time fallback in the America/New_York time
# zone on 2020-11-01 01:59:59 EDT -> 2020-11-01 01:00:00 EST, resulting
# in two 1 o'clock hours. This means that the following naive time is
# ambiguous since we don't know which of the two 1 o'clocks it belongs to.
# By default, attempting to convert it to a zoned time will result in an
# error.
ambiguous_time <- year_month_day(2020, 11, 01, 01, 30, 00)
ambiguous_time <- as_naive_time(ambiguous_time)
try(as_zoned_time(ambiguous_time, new_york))
#> Error in stop_clock(message, "clock_error_ambiguous_time") :
#>   Ambiguous time due to daylight saving time at location 1.
#> ℹ Resolve ambiguous time issues by specifying the ambiguous argument.

# Resolve this by specifying an ambiguous time resolution strategy
earliest <- as_zoned_time(ambiguous_time, new_york, ambiguous = "earliest")
latest <- as_zoned_time(ambiguous_time, new_york, ambiguous = "latest")
na <- as_zoned_time(ambiguous_time, new_york, ambiguous = "NA")
earliest
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[1]>
#> [1] "2020-11-01T01:30:00-04:00"
latest
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[1]>
#> [1] "2020-11-01T01:30:00-05:00"
na
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[1]>
#> [1] NA

# Now assume that you were given the following zoned-times, i.e.,
# you didn't build them from scratch so you already know their otherwise
# ambiguous offsets
x <- c(earliest, latest)
x
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[2]>
#> [1] "2020-11-01T01:30:00-04:00" "2020-11-01T01:30:00-05:00"

# To set the seconds to 5 in both, you might try:
x_naive <- x %>%
as_naive_time() %>%
as_year_month_day() %>%
set_second(5) %>%
as_naive_time()

x_naive
#> <time_point<naive><second>[2]>
#> [1] "2020-11-01T01:30:05" "2020-11-01T01:30:05"

# But this fails because you've "lost" the information about which
# offsets these ambiguous times started in
try(as_zoned_time(x_naive, zoned_time_zone(x)))
#> Error in stop_clock(message, "clock_error_ambiguous_time") :
#>   Ambiguous time due to daylight saving time at location 1.
#> ℹ Resolve ambiguous time issues by specifying the ambiguous argument.

# To get around this, you can use that information by specifying
# ambiguous = x, which will use the offset from x to resolve the
# ambiguity in x_naive as long as x is also an ambiguous time with the
# same daylight saving time transition point as x_naive (i.e. here
# everything has a transition point of "2020-11-01 01:00:00 EST").
as_zoned_time(x_naive, zoned_time_zone(x), ambiguous = x)
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[2]>
#> [1] "2020-11-01T01:30:05-04:00" "2020-11-01T01:30:05-05:00"

# Say you added one more time to x that would not be considered ambiguous
# in naive-time
x <- c(x, as_zoned_time(as_sys_time(latest) + 3600, zoned_time_zone(latest)))
x
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[3]>
#> [1] "2020-11-01T01:30:00-04:00" "2020-11-01T01:30:00-05:00"
#> [3] "2020-11-01T02:30:00-05:00"

# Imagine you want to floor this vector to a multiple of 2 hours, with
# an origin of 1am that day. You can do this by subtracting the origin,
# flooring, then adding it back
origin <- year_month_day(2019, 11, 01, 01, 00, 00) %>%
as_naive_time() %>%
as_duration()

x_naive <- x %>%
as_naive_time() %>%
time_point_floor("hour", n = 2) %>%

x_naive
#> <time_point<naive><second>[3]>
#> [1] "2020-11-01T01:00:00" "2020-11-01T01:00:00" "2020-11-01T01:00:00"

# You again have ambiguous naive-time points, so you might try using
# ambiguous = x. It looks like this took care of the first two problems,
# but we have an issue at location 3.
try(as_zoned_time(x_naive, zoned_time_zone(x), ambiguous = x))
#> Error in stop_clock(message, "clock_error_ambiguous_time") :
#>   Ambiguous time due to daylight saving time at location 3.
#> ℹ Resolve ambiguous time issues by specifying the ambiguous argument.

# When we floored from 02:30:00 -> 01:00:00, we went from being
# unambiguous -> ambiguous. In clock, this is something you must handle
# explicitly, and cannot be handled by using information from x. You can
# handle this while still retaining the behavior for the other two
# time points that were ambiguous before and after the floor by passing a
# list containing x and an ambiguous time resolution strategy to use
# when information from x can't resolve ambiguities:
as_zoned_time(x_naive, zoned_time_zone(x), ambiguous = list(x, "latest"))
#> <zoned_time<second><America/New_York>[3]>
#> [1] "2020-11-01T01:00:00-04:00" "2020-11-01T01:00:00-05:00"
#> [3] "2020-11-01T01:00:00-05:00"