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There are two parsers into a sys-time, sys_time_parse() and sys_time_parse_RFC_3339().

sys_time_parse()

sys_time_parse() is useful when you have date-time strings like "2020-01-01T01:04:30" that you know should be interpreted as UTC, or like "2020-01-01T01:04:30-04:00" with a UTC offset but no zone name. If you find yourself in the latter situation, then parsing this string as a sys-time using the %Ez command to capture the offset is probably your best option. If you know that this string should be interpreted in a specific time zone, parse as a sys-time to get the UTC equivalent, then use as_zoned_time().

The default options assume that x should be parsed at second precision, using a format string of "%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S". This matches the default result from calling format() on a sys-time.

sys_time_parse() is nearly equivalent to naive_time_parse(), except for the fact that the %z command is actually used. Using %z assumes that the rest of the date-time string should be interpreted as a naive-time, which is then shifted by the UTC offset found in %z. The returned time can then be validly interpreted as UTC.

sys_time_parse() ignores the %Z command.

sys_time_parse_RFC_3339()

sys_time_parse_RFC_3339() is a wrapper around sys_time_parse() that is intended to parse the extremely common date-time format outlined by RFC 3339. This document outlines a profile of the ISO 8601 format that is even more restrictive.

In particular, this function is intended to parse the following three formats:

2019-01-01T00:00:00Z
2019-01-01T00:00:00+0430
2019-01-01T00:00:00+04:30

This function defaults to parsing the first of these formats by using a format string of "%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%SZ".

If your date-time strings use offsets from UTC rather than "Z", then set offset to one of the following:

  • "%z" if the offset is of the form "+0430".

  • "%Ez" if the offset is of the form "+04:30".

The RFC 3339 standard allows for replacing the "T" with a "t" or a space (" "). Set separator to adjust this as needed.

For this function, the precision must be at least "second".

Usage

sys_time_parse(
  x,
  ...,
  format = NULL,
  precision = "second",
  locale = clock_locale()
)

sys_time_parse_RFC_3339(
  x,
  ...,
  separator = "T",
  offset = "Z",
  precision = "second"
)

Arguments

x

[character]

A character vector to parse.

...

These dots are for future extensions and must be empty.

format

[character / NULL]

A format string. A combination of the following commands, or NULL, in which case a default format string is used.

A vector of multiple format strings can be supplied. They will be tried in the order they are provided.

Year

  • %C: The century as a decimal number. The modified command %NC where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

  • %y: The last two decimal digits of the year. If the century is not otherwise specified (e.g. with %C), values in the range [69 - 99] are presumed to refer to the years [1969 - 1999], and values in the range [00 - 68] are presumed to refer to the years [2000 - 2068]. The modified command %Ny, where N is a positive decimal integer, specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

  • %Y: The year as a decimal number. The modified command %NY where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 4. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

Month

  • %b, %B, %h: The locale's full or abbreviated case-insensitive month name.

  • %m: The month as a decimal number. January is 1. The modified command %Nm where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

Day

  • %d, %e: The day of the month as a decimal number. The modified command %Nd where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

Day of the week

  • %a, %A: The locale's full or abbreviated case-insensitive weekday name.

  • %w: The weekday as a decimal number (0-6), where Sunday is 0. The modified command %Nw where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 1. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

ISO 8601 week-based year

  • %g: The last two decimal digits of the ISO week-based year. The modified command %Ng where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

  • %G: The ISO week-based year as a decimal number. The modified command %NG where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 4. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

  • %V: The ISO week-based week number as a decimal number. The modified command %NV where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

  • %u: The ISO weekday as a decimal number (1-7), where Monday is 1. The modified command %Nu where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 1. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

Week of the year

  • %U: The week number of the year as a decimal number. The first Sunday of the year is the first day of week 01. Days of the same year prior to that are in week 00. The modified command %NU where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

  • %W: The week number of the year as a decimal number. The first Monday of the year is the first day of week 01. Days of the same year prior to that are in week 00. The modified command %NW where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

Day of the year

  • %j: The day of the year as a decimal number. January 1 is 1. The modified command %Nj where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 3. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

Date

  • %D, %x: Equivalent to %m/%d/%y.

  • %F: Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d. If modified with a width (like %NF), the width is applied to only %Y.

Time of day

  • %H: The hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number. The modified command %NH where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

  • %I: The hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number. The modified command %NI where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

  • %M: The minutes as a decimal number. The modified command %NM where N is a positive decimal integer specifies the maximum number of characters to read. If not specified, the default is 2. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required.

  • %S: The seconds as a decimal number. Leading zeroes are permitted but not required. If encountered, the locale determines the decimal point character. Generally, the maximum number of characters to read is determined by the precision that you are parsing at. For example, a precision of "second" would read a maximum of 2 characters, while a precision of "millisecond" would read a maximum of 6 (2 for the values before the decimal point, 1 for the decimal point, and 3 for the values after it). The modified command %NS, where N is a positive decimal integer, can be used to exactly specify the maximum number of characters to read. This is only useful if you happen to have seconds with more than 1 leading zero.

  • %p: The locale's equivalent of the AM/PM designations associated with a 12-hour clock. The command %I must precede %p in the format string.

  • %R: Equivalent to %H:%M.

  • %T, %X: Equivalent to %H:%M:%S.

  • %r: Equivalent to %I:%M:%S %p.

Time zone

  • %z: The offset from UTC in the format [+|-]hh[mm]. For example -0430 refers to 4 hours 30 minutes behind UTC. And 04 refers to 4 hours ahead of UTC. The modified command %Ez parses a : between the hours and minutes and leading zeroes on the hour field are optional: [+|-]h[h][:mm]. For example -04:30 refers to 4 hours 30 minutes behind UTC. And 4 refers to 4 hours ahead of UTC.

  • %Z: The full time zone name or the time zone abbreviation, depending on the function being used. A single word is parsed. This word can only contain characters that are alphanumeric, or one of '_', '/', '-' or '+'.

Miscellaneous

  • %c: A date and time representation. Equivalent to %a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y.

  • %%: A % character.

  • %n: Matches one white space character. %n, %t, and a space can be combined to match a wide range of white-space patterns. For example "%n " matches one or more white space characters, and "%n%t%t" matches one to three white space characters.

  • %t: Matches zero or one white space characters.

precision

[character(1)]

A precision for the resulting time point. One of:

  • "day"

  • "hour"

  • "minute"

  • "second"

  • "millisecond"

  • "microsecond"

  • "nanosecond"

Setting the precision determines how much information %S attempts to parse.

locale

[clock_locale]

A locale object created from clock_locale().

separator

[character(1)]

The separator between the date and time components of the string. One of:

  • "T"

  • "t"

  • " "

offset

[character(1)]

The format of the offset from UTC contained in the string. One of:

  • "Z"

  • "z"

  • "%z" to parse a numeric offset of the form "+0430"

  • "%Ez" to parse a numeric offset of the form "+04:30"

Value

A sys-time.

Details

If your date-time strings contain a full time zone name and a UTC offset, use zoned_time_parse_complete(). If they contain a time zone abbreviation, use zoned_time_parse_abbrev().

If your date-time strings don't contain an offset from UTC and you aren't sure if they should be treated as UTC or not, you might consider using naive_time_parse(), since the resulting naive-time doesn't come with an assumption of a UTC time zone.

Full Precision Parsing

It is highly recommended to parse all of the information in the date-time string into a type at least as precise as the string. For example, if your string has fractional seconds, but you only require seconds, specify a sub-second precision, then round to seconds manually using whatever convention is appropriate for your use case. Parsing such a string directly into a second precision result is ambiguous and undefined, and is unlikely to work as you might expect.

Examples

sys_time_parse("2020-01-01T05:06:07")
#> <time_point<sys><second>[1]>
#> [1] "2020-01-01T05:06:07"

# Day precision
sys_time_parse("2020-01-01", precision = "day")
#> <time_point<sys><day>[1]>
#> [1] "2020-01-01"

# Nanosecond precision, but using a day based format
sys_time_parse("2020-01-01", format = "%Y-%m-%d", precision = "nanosecond")
#> <time_point<sys><nanosecond>[1]>
#> [1] "2020-01-01T00:00:00.000000000"

# Multiple format strings are allowed for heterogeneous times
sys_time_parse(
  c("2019-01-01", "2019/1/1"),
  format = c("%Y/%m/%d", "%Y-%m-%d"),
  precision = "day"
)
#> <time_point<sys><day>[2]>
#> [1] "2019-01-01" "2019-01-01"

# The `%z` command shifts the date-time by subtracting the UTC offset so
# that the returned sys-time can be interpreted as UTC
sys_time_parse(
  "2020-01-01 02:00:00 -0400",
  format = "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %z"
)
#> <time_point<sys><second>[1]>
#> [1] "2020-01-01T06:00:00"

# Remember that the `%Z` command is ignored entirely!
sys_time_parse("2020-01-01 America/New_York", format = "%Y-%m-%d %Z")
#> <time_point<sys><second>[1]>
#> [1] "2020-01-01T00:00:00"

# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# RFC 3339

# Typical UTC format
x <- "2019-01-01T00:01:02Z"
sys_time_parse_RFC_3339(x)
#> <time_point<sys><second>[1]>
#> [1] "2019-01-01T00:01:02"

# With a UTC offset containing a `:`
x <- "2019-01-01T00:01:02+02:30"
sys_time_parse_RFC_3339(x, offset = "%Ez")
#> <time_point<sys><second>[1]>
#> [1] "2018-12-31T21:31:02"

# With a space between the date and time and no `:` in the offset
x <- "2019-01-01 00:01:02+0230"
sys_time_parse_RFC_3339(x, separator = " ", offset = "%z")
#> <time_point<sys><second>[1]>
#> [1] "2018-12-31T21:31:02"